Dr. Steven Monrotus, a native of the Saint Louis Metro area, is Principal Organist of the Scottish Rite Cathedral in Saint Louis, Missouri, holds memberships in the Saint Louis Chapter of the American Guild of Organists (AGO), Saint Louis Theatre Organ Society, and American Composers Forum, and is an active blogger and webmaster of OrganBench.  Currently serving as a state, national, and international fraternal organist, he has been playing the organ for nearly 60 years.  It was his good fortune beginning at the age of 13 to have studied the organ privately with some very inspiring and encouraging teachers outside his school district.  Those instructors from the Saint Louis area were the late Robert Thompson (1962-65), the late Henri DeKeersgieter (1965-66), and the late Dr. Mario Salvador AAGO (1969) who was then Director of Music for the historic Saint Louis Cathedral Basilica.  By a curious coincidence Dr. Monrotus happened to be born in Saint Louis on the same day that the brand new 77-rank four manual Kilgen liturgical organ at this Cathedral was dedicated in recital by Dr. Salvador, who taught this author from that same instrument some 20 years later.  By another curious coincidence, Dr. Monrotus happened to be born on the same day, and at the same hour, exactly 25 years after organist Charles Courboin performed an inaugural recital on the brand new 51-rank, four manual Kimball concert organ at the Saint Louis Scottish Rite Cathedral, the instrument over which Dr. Monrotus would eventually preside exactly 25 years after he became a Scottish Rite Mason. 

During his high school years at the age of 15, after only 18 months of private study with his first teacher, he performed on stage before a live audience of 500 people in a theatrical show with 22 acts and was awarded a first place for his organ playing.  Under this early influence he progressed rapidly.  Four years later, at the age of 19, he was privileged to play the historic 4-manual Kimball concert organ of 144 stops at the Saint Louis Scottish Rite Cathedral [See menu bar, Photos 3] for the first time, and, during that session, coincidentally performed a major Bach work on it, not realizing then that the very same work was also performed at its dedication recital for Master Masons and their families back in 1924.  Much later in life he also learned that, by another curious coincidence, he was born exactly 25 years after that same dedication recital, on the same day, same city, same hour in fact.  He also, coincidentally, happened to become a 32nd degree member of the Scottish Rite at Saint Louis on his birthday exactly 25 years after his first contact with this instrument.  In music, timing means everything, and these multiple coincidences have left him feeling a special bond with this national treasure of a pipe organ.

At the age of 23 he became organist for his own Roman Catholic parish churches, first at SS. Peter and Paul in Waterloo, Illinois (1975-1977) and afterwards at historic Saint Frances de Sales in Saint Louis (1977-1979), also known to locals as the "Cathedral of South Saint Louis."  During these busy 4 years he performed weekly for the Sunday organ Mass and on feast days, never missing a day of obligation.  After relocating to Farmington, Missouri, and much later in life, after the foundations of his organ playing were well in place from his work with his previous teachers, he resumed private organ study again, this time in Milwaukee, Wisconsin with the late John Quasi Weissrock (1999-2002), a grandson of Marcel Dupre, tutorially, at the Roman Catholic Church of the Gesu on the campus of Marquette University.

In the same way that Dr. Salvador was a legend in the Saint Louis area, John Quasi was a legend in the Milwaukee area and, in 1960 at the age of 21, he was the first and youngest candidate ever to win the prestigious National Organ Playing Competition held in Fort Wayne, Indiana.  John Quasi played in a wonderful French style and was, among many other things, a remarkably gifted musician completely without artifice, a great artist, a master of rhythm, a powerhouse of technique, a consummate technician who possessed extraordinary abilities for communicating a language of warmth and meaning to an audience, and, perhaps even more importantly, an uncommonly good teacher.  And while the foundations of his student's playing were already well in place, it was determined that there was still much that he could do to hone it around, to do some different things, and to add in new concepts.

Dr. Monrotus was able to benefit greatly from this teacher's genius, and his work with him put him on the direct teacher-pupil succession 9 generations on back to J. S. Bach through Weissrock, Dr. Wayne Fisher, Dupre, Guilmant, Lemmens, Hesse, Rinck, and finally Kittel who was one of the last students of J.S. Bach.  At this time Dr. Monrotus could already trace his lineage back 7 generations to J. S. Bach through Dr. Salvador, Middelschulte, Haupt, A.W. Bach, Fischer, and Kittel.  He could also trace a lineage 5 generations on back to Cesar Franck through Weissrock, Dr. Fisher, Dupre, and finally Vierne who was one of Franck's last students.  His lineage as a great, great grandson of Louis Vierne, tutorially, was of particular interest to him [See Bio subpage, A Case Study].

Dr. Monrotus could have become bivocational, but instead he chose a career in the health professions until his retirement.  For a period of 41 years he worked as a trusted and respected doctor of dentistry but still continued his study of the organ and organ playing his whole life, partly because he loved it and partly to comply with a promise he made when he was 16 years old to a very dear teacher, at his teacher's insistence, to never give up playing the instrument (See home page, personal message).  He's performed at the organ for many weddings and innumerable worship services and fraternal ceremonies, devoting countless hours of service to this specialized music ministry.  He has arranged for keyboard and recorded on three CDs a large collection of Christian hymns, anthems, and songs for the benefit of Autism Speaks, the Hearing Health Foundation, and to help fund research into the causes and treatment of central auditory processing disorder in children.

Being of the opinion that a careful study of it would be indispensible to his own musical education, and while engaged on that study in 1982, he successfully unearthed an arithmetic code which explains the ordering of pieces which J.S. Bach presumably had in mind when he composed his didactic collection of fugues and canons all built upon a single theme which has come down to us under the title Die Kunst der Fuga (The Art of Fugue).  The paper which essays this hidden mathematical symbolism is posted pro bono on this blog [See menu bar, Blog/Archive, subpage The Art of Fugue].

Today Dr. Monrotus is an active fraternal organist, blogger, and composer of organ music.  His output of 32 pieces for organ has been grouped into 5 major collections as follows:  1) Ten Pieces for Organ Op. 1-9, 2) Eight Pieces for Organ Op. 10-17, 3) Six Pieces for Organ Op. 18-23, 4) Five Preludes & Fugues for Organ Op. 24-28, and 5) Three Postludes for Organ Op. 29-31.  The scores of the pieces for two hands only in the first collection have also been adapted for performance at the piano and grouped separately as a sixth collection of Ten Pieces for Piano Op. 1-9.

This music has been copyrighted and published.  Individual scores may be previewed, heard with mp3 sample audio playback, or downloaded and printed from either of these links:


They also have been made completely available on CD along with mp3 sample audio playbacks, cover pages, contents pages, and suggestions for performance.

These scores make a gift that keeps on giving.  Proceeds from this CD are being given to the Saint Louis Kimball pipe organ perpetual maintenance fund (See Below).

Cover pages, tables of contents, and suggestion for performance for each of these major collections are also available for free download from this web site.

The entire 1st collection may be performed on a one manual pipe organ with or without pedals, a digital keyboard with pipe organ samples, or a reed organ (harmonium).  These have also been arranged for piano solo and published separately in that format.  The other 4 collections have an obligatory pedal part and were written for an organ with 2 manuals and pedals minimum.

The contents of these 5 collections are a smorgasbord of different types and styles with a rather heavy emphasis on canonic imitation and fugue.  They all stay within the bounds of traditional tonality, are highly idiomatic to the organ, and pay close attention to form.  Much of this music is in 3 and 4 voice texture.  Since the fugue is the organ piece par excellence, fugue writing plays a predominant role in his compositional output; over half (19) of these collected pieces are either stand alone fugues or a fugue paired with a prelude of some sort.  The first 2 collections are both pitched at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels with the 2nd collection being a supplement to the 1st.  The pieces in the last 3 collections are all pitched at the advanced level with the 4th and 5th collections being a supplement to the 3rd.

The guiding principle which leads his composing is the immutable fact that the listener's mind seeks order and stability (meaning a tonal center, a clear beat, a discernable formal structure, and satisfying juxtaposition of sounds).  As a composer for the organ he's not in denial of this fundamental fact and therefore he believes:  1) that a composer's music should have one overriding goal in mind, viz., to connect with and convey a language of warmth a meaning to an audience, 2) that functional tonality is the gravity that holds music together and keeps it from flying apart, 3) that counterpoint is the arterial life's blood of music, and 4) that the problem his own music should solve is to provide the organist with something new to play that will have these characteristics -- something that will hold together tonally and structurally, sing as if it's alive, and captivate if not move the listener.

This writer recognizes and appreciates 20th century trends in composition, to be sure, and acknowledges the logic involved in the synthesis of modern works.  But he also recognizes and freely admits that by trying to think far outside the box there's nothing outside the box but a vacuum.  Outside the box there's no rules there, no reality there, no means of production, nothing to work against.  It's hard to see how any lasting work of art can be produced from there.  So instead, he prefers to think along the edges of the box because that's where he feels the means of production are, that's where things get done, that's where the audience is, and that's where he feels his own creativity can make an impact.

New and experimental concepts will be found in his music, and, in that sense, it may be considered avant-garde; but this composer does not identify with today's award-winning intelligentsia, i.e. those academicians who have formed their own vanguard or elite and have developed their own musical language.  Keeping all this in mind and simply stated, his writing contains no 20th century methods, home-made tonal systems, serialism, blurring of tonality, or harmonic disorder which can initially disorient the listener.  While this composer's work stays within the framework of functional harmony, i.e. still finding the superposition of thirds a satisfactory system for the determination and construction of chords, he takes liberties at times which are very daring.

These scores therefore reveal a writer who, if he composes something, he doesn't waht to have to explain what it is -- a craftsman who likes to think horizontally and whose counterpoint is busy.  In his C Major Op. 4 Variations on a cantus firmus (c.f.), for example, 3 of the 13 variations are 2 voice canons at the octave, one of which is a tricky business with the c.f. and its inverse being follower and leader, respectively.  The penultimate (12th) variation is a fugato and introduces a companion subject, uses the inverted c.f. for a 1st countersubject, and works one of the free voices appearing in the exposition as a 2nd countersubject in the entries which follow, all in triple counterpoint.  Passages having 2- and 3-part canons can be found elsewhere in his work.  These canons are at the octave, 4th, and 5th, and some are in augmentation, inverse movement, and retrograde.

His writing shows other signature moves:  it's colorful harmonically, even spicy at times through the use of altered chords, chromatic harmonies, and final major triads with added 2nds and 6ths, a vocabulary similar to the methods that Louis Vierne used [See menu bar, Homage/Photos 2].  The part writing is smooth and follows the rules [See blog, Getting Started With Writing, Part XX], but this composer also acknowledges the fact that life may improve dramatically when someone decides to break the rules and finds beauty when they were told, or led to believe, that there was none.  The stretch for each hands in this music is always kept an octave or less, and, save for the D Major Recessional Op. 2 (which is written in "keyboard style") and the Eb Major Trio Op. 14 (a technical study which teaches the entire instrument) voices never cross; voice ranges are never exceeded, and the only time adjacent voices meet at a unison (prime) is when there is no other good alternative.  In every piece there is at least one place where the moving lines approach each other momentarily at a "near miss" minor 2nd interval, its inversion (major 7th), or its compound (minor 9th), which adds color and spice to the writing [See blog, Getting Started With Writing, Part XXI].

As for his 19 fugues, they're complete pieces as all fugues should be; none of them are a mere exposition without subsequent development -- the type of music which is sometimes proudly heralded these days as a "fugue."  They are all in 4 voices, of relatively thick texture, and are a product of his own 10-step method of fugue writing which is explained on his blog [See blog, Ten Steps}.  Ten (10) of them begin in the tenor voice; the rest begin in the alto (6) or soprano (3).  The majority (12) of them are paired with a prelude of some sort.   These are lively pieces with a relentless driving rhythm, nothing like the "insipid classroom fugue" one might imagine as being the boring, low point of the art.  At the same time they're never found disintegrating tonally midway through to where the next recognizable chord is the final one.  All save for one (Op. 22) have real answers, and most (12) begin on the 1st scale degree.  Four of them (Op. 19, 27, 29, 30) begin boldly on the 3rd scale degree; these all have subjects with a "tail" which points strongly to the dominant (as they must) and were provided with real answers.  Two more (Op. 22, 26) begin on the 5th scale degree; the first of these (Op. 22), as mentioned, has a tonal answer, and the other (Op. 26) has a real answer in the subdominant.  One more (Op. 13) has a subject which commences boldly on the 7th scale degree (leading tone) and is supplied with a real answer.  All are supplied with at least one codetta (interlude, or link) in the exposition, and all are provided with multiple countersubjects.  Episodes are constructed upon fragments of the subject, countersubjects, and their inversions, thus providing for a rapid and weighty development.

The variety of effect this creates from the several combinations of each subject and its multiple countersubjects interplaying with such economy of means also made this a favorite method of J.S. Bach whose enormous compositional output contains hundreds of fugues of sturdy build, so many of which derive their structural supports to well-spaced entries of these same 3 moving lines made in different positions and keys.  The fugato (12th) variation from his C Major Op. 4 Variations on a cantus firmus (c.f.) also begins boldly on the 3rd scale degree and also has a real answer in the dominant, but it has no codetta in the exposition between the 2nd and 3rd entries of the subject.  The 1st countersubject from the fugato variation from Op. 4 is the inverted c.f., and the 1st countersubject from the D Major Op. 28 Fugue is derived by inverting the subject of the Fugue from the previous work (Op. 27), thus these two fugues are thematically related.

The Op. 28 Prelude, for its part, uses the 3rd countersubject from the Fugue for a free theme and is treated in the same 6-part improvisational form employed in several other works.  The first 5 notes of the 3rd countersubject in this Fugue happen to be identical with the first 5 notes of Bach's dashing D Major organ Fugue in the same key.  Further homage is paid to J.S. Bach with the 2nd exposition of this Prelude's theme which is presented as a 3-voice canon at the octave.  These types of canons figure in many of his pieces.

These characteristics give his music a certain style while, at the same time, something unexpected may be introduced.  The c minor Op. 11 double Fugue paired with a Prelude, for example, has an unusually bold exposition in its middle section employing only the home key and its relative.   In the D Major Op. 18 Fugue there is a redundant entry in the exposition which inverts the subject and both countersubjects.  The entry which follows the exposition of the A Major Op. 13 "Jig" Fugue inverts the subject and both countersubjects, simultaneously.  In the D Major Op. 6 "Jig" Fugue every episode is worked in 3 voices, whereas episodes in all the rest of his fugues are in 2 voices only.  The Op. 22 "Postlude" is the only fugue of his having a tonal answer; all the rest have real answers.  Eight of his fugues (Op. 10, 11, 21, 22, 28, 29, 30, 31) are written in quadruple counterpoint with 3 countersubjects maintained throughout (the other 121are all worked in triple counterpoint with 2 countersubjects).  The G Major Op. 7 Voluntary is also worked fugally where at one point the upper and lower voices on each staff are exchanged in successive entries.

Many of these fugues are paired with a prelude of some sort that's related thematically.  The e minor Op. 24 Prelude, for example, is constructed in thirds using both countersubjects from the Fugue as thematic material.  Here each countersubject is introduced on its own and harmonized in its own section before being combined in the third section.  Both Prelude themes then reappear, as if by magic, as countersubjects in the Fugue, thus providing a very strong sense of unity.  The a minor Op. 25 Prelude develops a single theme in 6-part form which is taken from a free voice appearing only once in the Fugue which follows.  This Prelude's theme is thus hidden as a free voice in the Fugue.  The b minor Op. 26 Prelude also develops a single theme in 6-part form which is taken from the 1st countersubject of the Fugue which follows.  Here the b minor Fugue's subject is the inversion of the a minor Op. 25 Fugue's subject.  The F Major Op. 27 Prelude develops a single theme in 6-part form also, which is taken from the 2nd countersubject of the Fugue which follows.

It may be that this 4th collection, by plowing in a compositional furrow all its own, has broken some new ground.  The pairing process used to create the Op. 25-28 Preludes & Fugues, i.e., of taking a 4 voice Fugue with multiple countersubjects (a method favored by J.S. Bach) and pairing it with a Prelude constructed upon a single related free theme treated in a 6-part improvisational form (a method favored by Louis Vierne) seems to represent, so far as this author can determine, a new synthesis, something unique to organ composition.  When multiple countersubjects participate in Fugues like this, the counterpoint becomes thrillingly dense, and even more miraculous when all voices are clear, clean, independent, and mutually complimentary.  Historically, coordinating this complexity in a piece of music so that the final unity is aesthetically successful, for composer or performer, has been an achievement of high art.

There's a lot going on these pieces of his, and the moves they make at times explore the boundaries of tonal fugue writing.  A fair amount of contemporary organ music being written today, some of which has been award-winning, has won acclaim from academia but doesn't always provide what the general listener's mind seeks and, to be perfectly honest, the latter can have a hard time making any sense of it.  This composer's music is not like this.  It stays within the bounds of tonality where themes are recognizable and developed polyphonically for the most part using fugal and other procedures.  Music of contrapuntal complexity like this demands a different approach to practice, and the process involved for learning this type of music with success is fully explained elsewhere on this web site.

While this music was composed entirely from the mind away from the instrument, voice lines remain singable with no awkward leaps, remain within their usual ranges (unless for a specific purpose noted at the outset), and never cross.  Basses are animated and, at times, romp all over the entire pedalboard.  The Eb Major Op. 14 Trio is a particularly demanding etude in this respect and addresses what is arguably the most difficult aspect of organ playing, which is getting the left hand and feet to move independently anywhere on the keys and exactly in time with the right hand [See blog, The Hardest Thing].  All of this helps to set this writing apart and gives it a personal stamp of identity.

This is essentially concert music that can be used for recitals, in the worship service, for fraternal ceremonies and work, or for instruction.  As such it's written for a smaller, elite audience of work-a-day organists, teachers, and church musicians within an already small classical music listening public.  Looking at it through the lens of the organ, anyone focused on composing organ music these days is writing for a medium whose core repertoire spans hundreds of years and is automatically entering into a dialogue with the past and having enduring works for models.  It was therefore natural that this composer give some throught to what it might take for his writing to become something that speaks to a broad variety of musicians and music lovers over a span of cultures, places, and even epochs -- something that might have a life beyond its original premier and even possibly labored over, loved, interrogated, or admired by future generations.

The overwhelming majority of music being created today is made with an entirely different goal in mind, viz., to create a hit, catching fire with the broadest possible listening public at the moment with no concern or regard for any kind of historical endurance.  The desire to write a piece that would enter the organ repertoire is particulary apposite, and contemporary works simply do not figure prominently in the organ repertoire.  We see this, notwithstanding noteworthy contributions by such eminent composers of the last 50 years as diverse as Philip Glass, David Lang, Milton Babbitt, and Gyorgi Ligeti, among others, and the tireless efforts of people like Carson Cooman who proselytize for contemporary organ music.

Nevertheless this composer's music has a certain stylishness, substantive ideas, integrity with a seriousness of purpose, craft in the sense of attention to detail, and an inner propulsion that carries the listener forward from start to finish including a little of the unexpected.  Within it may be found elements of intricacy, subtlety, and sophistication that balance simplicity, contrasting ideas which generate interest, and a form molded with the intention of creating a satisfying sense of a musical journey.  History teaches that all of these are necessary conditions for a contemporary work to enter the standard organ repertoire.

NOTE:  It has never been for any composer to say whether the music he or she has written is "good" or not; that has always been for others to determine.  What can be said, if that this composer's compositional output provides the listener's mind with what it seeks in a piece of music and is crafted on the same principles that have withstood the test of time for hundreds of years.  Opinions often differ widely about contemporary music, and national differences of taste also may be concerned; within one's own country a given composer may be worthy of a Collected Edition and elsewhere apt to be dismissed as a mere note-spinner.  Living composers are fortunate when their own taste happens to be the fashionable one.  The work of an unknown can easily be overshadowed by the work of a more well-known contemporary who happens to enjoy enormous success, more so than is altogether fair.  It may also be true that many composers have written too much, but neither is there any doubt about the attractions of their music, at its best.  Whether any contemporary composer's work will end up gathering dust or find its way into the repertoire will likely depend upon whatever is decided by the musicologists who may be around in the year 2100.

Dr. Monrotus is a founding member of the Panel of Advisors serving as the supporting board for the AGO Committee on the New Organist (CONO) which reports to the Guild's National Councillor for Education.  Since the support of new organists is one of the Guild's primary objectives, he has created OrganBench, a conceptual learning blog for new organists of all ages, organ scholars, and anyone else interested in the pipe organ and its music.  Not everything about organ playing can be learned away from its keys, but much of it can, and some of it must.  That's where this learning blog comes in handy, to help fill that need, and its use bears this out;  since its creation it has enjoyed over 163K visits, and its blog/archive has received over 211K individual page viewsThe archive takes the reader step by step through the creative process, explaining in detailed postings some of the author's steps along this same trail, what it takes and how to get started writing organ music with a particular focus on fugues, what someone needs to know on the road toward becoming a solid organist, how to overcome the fear of failure, and a boat load of other helpful information.

Dr. Monrotus is one of the most experienced fraternal organists in the United States.  He has performed at over 40 Masonic venues in North America, and his combined record of service-related years as an organist for various Masonic organizations, in aggregate, is well over 100 years.  He is the first and only 4-Star Organist in Missouri Masonic history -- meaning that he has been appointed to, installed into, and served in the offices of 1) Primus Grand Musician of the Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of the State of Missouri, 2) Grand Organist, Grand Chapter Royal Arch Masons of Missouri, 3) Grand Organist, Grand Council Cryptic Masons of Missouri, and 4) Grand Organist, Grand Commandery Knights Templar of Missouri -- and currently serves in these offices, simultaneously.  Internationally he is the only Freemason to have served as 1) General Grand Organist, General Grand Chapter Royal Arch Masons International, 2) General Grand Musician, General Grand Council Cryptic Masons International, 3) Grand Organist, York Rite Sovereign College of North America, and 4) Primus Provincial Grand Organist for the United States of America, Masonic Order of Athelstan in England, Wales, & its Provinces Overseas -- and currently serves in these 4 offices, simultaneously.  His combined record of service to these 8 offices exceeds 50 years, he holds memberships in several invitational Trinitarian Christian organizations, and he is the recipient of a number of awards and honors for his charitable work and musical service.


The console of the historic Kimball organ of 144 stops, 51 ranks, 9 divisions, 3,907 pipes of Saint Louis Scottish Rite Cathedral







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