Hi and welcome to OrganBench, and thanks so much for stopping by. This is a conceptual learning blog dedicated to organists, organ scholars, and all others who love or have a thirst for information about the pipe
organ and its music. It was created to encourage and assist those interested in learning to play it or improve their playing, to aid and inform the uninitiated, to help guide those who are fascinated with the creative impulse of writing for
it, and to inspire musicians and non-musicians alike. It's the result of a lot of hard, careful, and considerate work, and I hope you enjoy it.
If your interest is in fraternal organ playing, writing music for the organ, being pointed in the right directions in your study of the instrument, or would just appreciate some sound (no pun intended) coaching and encouragement, you'll
find this an attractive home to which you'll want to return many, many times. The voice of experience will be found here along with hundreds upon hundreds of archival postings, a boatload of free materials, some interesting videos, and a very inspiring
This site has to do with conceptual learning to help impart an understanding of the subject. In developing the several skills required for organ playing there's also an understanding, but it needs to be coupled with the practice
of what's trying to be learned. Sometimes we need to start that practicing without a complete understanding because, depending upon the skill we're trying to learn, that understanding comes only when we can do it. Learning the series of
skills under consideration is rarely something that can be acquired immediately, and reading through this web site in one evening and just understanding it will not suffice. Even a little bit of practice at the keys every day will bring us further
in less time. If we try to learn it all at once we may wind up understanding how it's done but not be able to do it very well. As you check out this site with its photos, videos, papers, personal message, and instructional postings I'd
like to invite you to accept a free token of my thanks and appreciation for visiting [See menu bar, Free Stuff], to begin to care even more about the pipe organ and its art, and to better understand the pathway to success in your own personal study
of this, the largest, most complex, and most fascinating musical instrument in Western civilization.
When we first think of the pipe organ we think of its power and uniqueness -- its ability, among other things, to create an almost incomputable number
of combinations of tint for tone color. Over 2 million permutations are possible even in a modest instrument of just 21 stops [See blog, Calculating Stop Combinations, Part II]. This is just one of its amazing characteristics. We're
talking here about a musical instrument which prior to the Industrial Revolution was, together with the clock, the most complicated piece of machinery in the world ... one which can sustain its notes indefinitely, whisper a barely audible phrase one moment
and roar the next, and single-handedly express the entire spectrum of human emotion ... an instrument whose range exceeds that of a symphony orchestra and sounds like it's under the control of a symphony of players ... an instrument custom made for its
building and whose magical play with the acoustics is unique to itself ... an instrument that has to be played differently in different buildings ... the one musical instrument that best leads congregational singing and lifts the hearts and minds of men
to thoughts of God and higher things ... one whose sounds never fail to resonate in human ears and stir the emotions at a raw, visceral level. No other musical instrument in the world works like this or can make these claims.
We also think of
keeping it maintained, which isn't just a matter of donating to a noble project for that space exclusively, but it's something more broad than that. It's supporting great organ music which spans hundreds of years ... and this music will be heard by countless
numbers of people, indefinitely into the future. A large specimen will have thousands of pipes, and not just pipes but a myriad of mechanical parts which seem to coalesce into something far bigger than themselves. Sitting at its keys, you
get the sense that playing a pipe organ, large or small, isn't merely an esthetic experience, it isn't just something you do because you like it, but it's attached to something sublime, something profound. It's something that
can open the gates of heaven before any and all listeners. The instrument to this day remains a mechanical wonder, and thanks to modern technology and expanded means of communication the person who plays it is transmitting an idea to the whole world
which can take many shapes, both inside and outside the institution which owns it.
We also think about Bach's music. The organ was a huge deal in Bach's time. It reached a golden age in the 17th and 18th centuries in northern Europe, and
Bach the organist was responding to the glories of prevailing organ construction and design. It has often been said that "the music of Johann Sebastian Bach sounds as if the salvation of the whole world hangs upon every note." It's a very sensible
way to describe his music. People sense this. During Gothic times the instrument was exclusively loud, coarse, and noisy with no way to control the character of the sound or its loudness. Every rank of pipes was on all the time at full blast.
But as the centuries passed it was made softer and less harsh in sound with the introduction of slider pallet wind chests and controls at the front of the case called "stops" which would either admit or "stop" air from entering one rank of pipes at a
time depending upon whether the knob controlling the air to a particular rank was pulled out to admit the air or pushed in to shut it off. The organ is still known for its power ... and should be able to make a glorious racket.
are many individuals, probably, who might entertain learning how to play it for their worship center, the organizations they've joined, or just their own amusement, maybe even offering up some sort of writing for it, but instead they're listening to their fears
... the fear of not knowing where to begin (or what to do once they do begin), the fear of it maybe sounding less than perfect with each an every attempt, the fear of being embarassed, the fear of criticism, the fear of being laughed at, the fear of shame,
the fear of failure. They're simply yielding to a natural force from within all of us, that voice inside our head telling us, each and every time we think about beginning some new project that elevates us to a higher level of educational, ethical,
physical, or spiritual attainment, that we're insecure, to play it safe and back off, to be careful, to go slow, and to compromise our dream.
That same voice is selfish, scared, lazy, tends to put jitters in every thought, and is not generous.
It's the same voice that causes people to freeze up when they're trying to perform. It reasons with us like a lawyer and tells us we're wasting our time. Then it goes for the throat, to kill our desire. As we get closer to an insight, closer
to the truth of what we really want, closer to realizing what we're envisioning, closer to finishing some creative project, closer to realizing our dream, this natural force is experienced as fear and grows to sabotage our success (author Steven Pressfield
calls it "Resistance" ... author Seth Godin calls its home, where it lives inside us, "The Lizard Brain"). It has no power of its own. It derives every ounce of its juice from fear. Deny it the fear that fuels it, and it has no power. This
is so important for organ scholars (or any musician) to understand that I wouldn't even begin to take my next lesson, write a single note of music, take the first steps in improvisation, or even perform in public until I had obtained a copy of The War Of Art by author Steven Pressfield [See blog, The Book, Part I] and began reading it carefully and thoughtfully ... which is why this book was made the very first posting in the blog/archive of this web site. Author Seth
Godin uses a whole chapter to describe it in his little book Linchpin [See blog, The Book, Part II], a copy of which is also important to get and read.
Here's the explanation: a physical part of our
human brain, 2 little prehistoric lumps called the amygdala near the brain stem, are responsible for this fear and are a primitive leftover from the early days when our ancestors needed them to help protect the body from the perils
and dangers of the wild world. Today, of course, we don't face these perils and dangers every day as our ancestors used to. But this part of the limbic system in the human brain is still there, and our job is to figure out how to quiet it, to ignore
it, but, even more importantly, to acknowledge its function where we can use it to guide and direct us, like the magnetic needle of a compass, to do the exact opposite of what our fears are telling us to do, which, for us, will be
the creative work that matters [See blog, The Lizard Brain, Parts I-VIII].
Being creative, to want to make something that wasn't there before, is part of the human experience. To say that we're not creative would be ridiculous and contrary to
the nature of human beings. We're all creative. It can seem otherwise only because some of us lose our battle with Resistance day to day and let it beat us. This conceptual learning blog was created to help show you, among other things, that,
while we're all subject to this natural force, while every practitioner of creative activity wrestles with Resistance all day long, and while the peril or danger we sense with it isn't actually real, we can use it to remind ourselves, every day, of
what it is we need to be doing, and then do the opposite of what the lizard brain is telling us. The hypercritical lizard brain will pick apart anything creative we try to do in order to preserve its own selfish sense of short-term safety. The alternative
is to develop a sense of loyalty to our mission and to slay this inner dragon anew, each and every day.
This blog is therefore bringing you something more valuable perhaps than even academic credentials could provide. It's a message of courage,
of understanding, of positive thinking, of inspiration, and of experience from the bottom up, about your impact on the world through your creative powers, and how you can win against your fears and whatever other obstacles may be facing you in this
study on your journey to achieving that success.
These are things you need to know. These are important things, even if you're not a musician, even if you never had a musical instrument in your home, even if you never had any musical interest
in your entire life, what you learn here can help you achieve whatever creative, artistic, educational, or worthwhile objective you've got in mind with that next project.
A YouTube video (See menu bar, Video) has been posted
on this web site of the D Major Op. 2 Recessional, one of 10 collected pieces composed for hands only which are equally at home on any single manual organ, acoustic piano, digital stage piano, reed organ (harmonium), or full size pipe organ (See below).
PDF files of this music along with 3 other collections written with an obligatory pedal part have been made available online for downloading and printing at Noteflight Marketplace. Separate cover pages, tables of contents, and suggestions for performance
for these 4 collections which may be downloaded and printed are available on this web site [See menu bar, Free Stuff]. Each piece has something to offer and I think you'll find them interesting, instructive, bold at times, full of ideas, lesson worthy,
recital worthy, solidly built, and of significant practical use. Because this music is of dense texture it will require slow practice to master (this is so, generally, for ALL repertoire). Most of it is not easy, but none of it is devilishly difficult.
This music was composed primarily for traditional worship, ceremonial, or concert use and to help fill the needs of fraternal organizations but, in addition, and more importantly, they're examples -- they represent a blueprint of sorts for those
who would entertain writing their own organ music.
Why is this important to you? ... because organists and other keyboard musicians are continually called upon to pair suitable music with the situation at hand and are expected to either already
have this kind of material ready, know where to get it, or know how to create it. Knowing about any resource, especially whole groups of pieces of this type which encourage and help lead the musician into a path of composing at the same time
making a significant contribution to the arsenal of material that works for the musical situations which confront them, is of significant worth. Some pointers are provided in the blog/archive about how to use an online music writing application
to create, store, view, print, play back, and convert your original scores to PDF form for export to the documents file of your notebook PC.
When these scores are examined they leave the impression that they were composed by someone who spent time
in composition classes at a major college/conservatory of music and had worked regularly at least part time as a paid professional musician. That isn't where it is. They were written by someone who was never employed as a musician, never took a
composition class in his life, never received a diploma from a music school, and never tried composing anything before. He simply found out how to win against his fears by reading Pressfield and Godin, learned the basics of musical notation and theory,
and had the guts to give it a try.
Once you make up your mind that you're going to create something of your own like this out of nothing, and you begin to acknowledge the function of your fear in guiding and directing you to what you need to be doing,
it's all within your reach. You don't have to be lucky, gifted, rich, or even particularly clever. This is a skill which can be taught. You just need to be doggedly determined, be persistent and generous (with yourself),
remain connected with it day to day, work in little bits at a time, realize that your fear is good and can guide you, and have the courage to go down that trail that scares you to death. Bottom line: it's a matter of attitude.
this: If we go far enough back, as soon as the early Christian church began to embrace the pneumatic organ as a resource to be used in divine worship, organ playing took on pastoral dimensions that it has retained to this very day. During the Middle
Ages in Britain and on the continent, 11th century monks were the professional organists of their day. They were primarily occupied as non-musicians, and the instrument they knew was the Gothic Blockwerk organ, an extremely crude,
loud, noisy, clumsy affair that required many men to pump the bellows. Each "key" of this Gothic organ was a large, very crude paddle-shaped lever which protruded from the case and required considerable pressure to depress, normally with the weight
of the arm on the entire fist. Everything these monks performed, every single note, was either improvised, i.e., spontaneously composed, or played from printed characters called neumes, which were inflective marks indicating the general shape, but
not the exact pitches or rhythm, of a plain chant melody.
We can be certain therefore, that there were times where these monks would stare at the organ case, its pipes, and the overgrown keys in front of them, wondering how they
were going to express their musical thoughts. Undoubtedly, there were times when they were afraid of performing at all, of being embarassed by the awful, unbearable noise they were creating, not to mention their concerns about making mistakes, of
failure. If they could have transcribed any of their improvisational ideas to paper afterwards they would have done so, but there was no notation system in those days for showing exact pitches or rhythms on a staff of five lines and thus no real
literature that could be studied.
None of this stopped them. They simply acknowledged the function their fear had in showing them what they needed to be doing and then forged ahead, no matter what. They made up their minds to sit down and
do their work as improvisors, in little bits at a time, at regular intervals, based upon the known melodies of plain chant. As soon as they did this, something mysterious happened: ideas came, insights began to accrete, and they were struck
By simply sitting down to do their work, a process was triggered which caused their hands and heart to bring to life a stream of inspired sound. This was done by using their fists to hold down an array of
large paddle shaped levers for keys, at the most 2 at a time (one for each hand). which protruded straight from the organ case and required considerable force. As time passed more of these large keys were added to the case where the organist
sat which were connected to the lowest notes of the instrument by means of simple ropes which could be held down by a foot, one key at a time, to add a single bass note or drone.
The vast body of organ music written over the last 700
years had its beginnings from there as the science of organ building progressed, the chromatic keyboard evolved, the keys were reduced in size, the action lightened so that fingers could hold them down, the slider and pallet wind chest and "stops" were
invented which allowed the various ranks of pipes in the instrument to be controlled separately, the pipes were reapportioned into divisions operated separately by one or more keyboards and a pedal keyboard, and methods of notation gradually developed which
allowed the actual pitches and rhythms of the improvisations created by the organists who followed the pioneers of the Gothic organ to be notated.
What this means is, if you can sit down to a keyboard today and drum out a simple child's song using only
one finger, you're summoning essentially the same creative processes for which medieval church musicians were known. It also means that you probably have something far more elaborate to say, which these days you can do the
efficient and easy way using the right tools. Understanding and adopting the ten step method for easier and faster fugue writing described in this blog/archive, for example, and employing a notebook PC and online music writing software program to say
what you want to say musically, could lead to some surprising, if not astonishing, results.
We're far off the mark if we buy into the notion that composition and improvisation are only for professional composers and graduates of music schools.
If you're looking for evidence of this, then all the proof you need are the scores posted on this blog [See menu bar, Free Stuff], and your own work will take shape in less time than you think once you start working with music writing software.
Among the free scores posted here, all of them were written within 10 consecutive days and many of them in half that time. From this you can begin to draw substantial encouragement for yourself, whether you have a college diploma in music or not, even
if your physical health is guarded or isn't the best, to do the same or better as you begin to express what's within you, to begin to release and feed all those things that you never knew were there before, and to benefit, grow, and progress
in your own writing for this, the most awesome musical instrument on the face of this earth.
The most inherent quality we humans possess is our creativity ... our ability to produce or bring into existence something entirely new out of nothing, through
imaginative skill. The moment that we decide to do the opposite of what the Voice of the Lizard, or Resistance, is telling us, and we just sit down and start working, is the moment that we're struck with inspiration. Pablo Picasso
was so right in observing that inspiration comes, but it has to find us working. This is when the windows of heaven, where creation has its home, seem to open. It's as if the creative energy or force behind this inspiration, like one of the 9 female
Muses from Greek mythology, which has its home in heaven where all the powers of creation reside, flies over us every day, almost like Santa Claus ... and if she doesn't happen to find us on the bench or working on anything at the time, she
decides not to grant us any creative ideas that day and passes on.
But if, when the Muse flies over us the next day, and she happens to find us on the organ bench practicing or maybe working with our notebook PC composing some piece of music, it's
as if she decides to sprinkle us with something mysterious, some creative thoughts from the timeless sphere in which she dwells, in the same way she gave creative idease to those struggling 11th century monks and every other musician who had the courage to
simply start working. Ideas then come, insights accrete, and it's this creative force from another sphere from where creation has its home that provides it. The artist simply does the "dictation," so to speak, to bring it into existence in this
material sphere. All true artists, after a while, realize that they don't know diddly; they're simply the conduit through which a higher intelligence in a timeless sphere of existence communicates with this time-bound one. And we can rightly conclude
that such communication from a higher world of dimensions invisible to this one is something this higher intelligence desires and makes it happy.
It's also true that Resistance, the Voice of the Lizard, is there every day, almost like Santa's evil twin,
always present, always working against the Muse, always trying to derail the creative artist from starting or finishing their work. Once again, you're going to want to read Pressfield and Godin, which have the best descriptions of it in print, then keep
them handy so you can refer back to them. It makes perfect sense in explaining this mysterious process of writing or improvising music, as well as any other creative endeavor.
Imagine that you invested in a private jet plane parked at the airport. You've
never piloted an aircraft before. The voice in your head is telling you that you're not a pilot and never will be, but you still have that dream ... it's in your heart, and you've made it your business to become acquainted with its controls. You
stare at this airplane of yours with a certain awe, wishing you were a pilot, wondering what it's like to sit at its controls and fly it. The voice in your head keeps reminding you that you've spent your entire life up until now outside the field of
aviation and that you need to compromise, play it safe, and back off. You've got no particular flight plan or destination in mind, you don't know how much fuel it has, you don't even know if every instrument on the instrument panel is working, and you
certainly don't know what kind of weather you're goint to run into. Your fear is reasoning with you like a lawyer, telling you to play it safe, ease back, and just stay on the ground.
Instead, you decide to use that fear of yours to guide you
in the direction that's important to the growth of your soul. Instead of yielding to the winds of fear blowing in your face, you head directly into it. You take a 180 degree turn in attitude and climb into the cockpit. You turn the key. You
start the engines. You taxi that aircraft of yours down to the end of the runway. You look up the runway with the voice of the lizard screaming in your ears that you don't have what it takes, and then you lean on the throttles. You're picking
up speed. All of a sudden unseen forces come to your aid, they you lift off the ground, and you're airborne. Pretty soon you're looking down upon the tops of the clouds from a place where no one, including yourself, ever thought you could ever
go. You've drained Resistance, the voice of the lizard, of all of its juice by denying it the fear that fuels it. You've beaten it at its own game and, in the process, realized your dream. That's what it takes, and that's what it's like, to sit
down and write your own music.
Sometimes, rarely, you start with a musical idea for a theme already in your head, but more typically that isn't how it works at all. It doesn't happen by standing in the hangar staring up at our airplane, waiting
for our fears and misgivings to disappear before we take action. No, the vast majority of the time we get our musical ideas only after we sit down and start working ... only after we've started our engines, taxied to the end of the
runway, and leaned on the throttles. It doesn't matter if you're writing a novel, drawing a picture, painting a landscape, sculpting a statue, choreographing a dance, arranging flowers, or composing a symphony ... every creative endeavor like this is
subject to this same mysterious process. It's the craziest thing in the world, to think that you have to start working before you get an idea for what you're going to turn out, but that's exactly how it works. Every score posted on
this blog was written this way ... You don't wait for an idea to arrive in your head, you just get to work, and then, inspiration comes. Inspiration has to see us working before it alights on our shoulder.
Don't let any of this intimidate
you, my friends. No matter what your level of skill, even if that musical instrument that captures your fascination isn't the organ, you can learn how to play it and even learn how to compose for it. You can learn how to improvise. You can
train your brain to sight read the printed page. You can train yourself to perform whatever in the repertoire suits your fancy. You can even learn how to lead hymn singing. All of these things are within your grasp because every one of
these things can be taught. Don't be afraid of trying. Whatever that dream of yours is, don't be afraid to follow it. Doubt kills more dreams than failure ever will. It will change your life and the lives of the people around you
... without question ... for the better.
The scores in the 1st collection posted were written for an instrument without pedals or when pedals are inoperative. These can make a digital stage piano with good pipe organ samples or just
the manuals of a pipe organ sound quite big [See menu bar, Video, Photo Album 2]. It helps a student of the organ to keep handy some practical contemporary music like this which covers a broad range of need for traditional worship services, fraternal
use, filling out recitals, or situations where only electronic keyboards are used ... if a small chapel type instrument or an old, historic pipe organ with no pedalboard is to be used ... if the pedalboard is too diminutive to perform the music first
contemplated ... for unexpected emergency moments (for example, if a critical pedal key is discovered loose at the last minute and unusable) ... or for teaching, especially if the student is unable to reach the pedals or is not yet fully comfortable
playing them. We never know when we're going to need stuff like this. It's this writer's hope that, for whatever purpose they're needed, all of the scores offered here will "have legs" and leave this blog so people may benefit from and have use
Imagine being tasked with playing for a half hour or more without pause on an unfamiliar instrument (this can happen), you're wanting to have a few things prepared in case you're called upon to play longer than expected, and
you're pressed for time to find and learn the right kind of material. The solution would be to have some pieces like this tucked under your arm before you travel and included with all the other material you plan to practice.
if you know ahead of time that you'll be performing on a very fine single manual pipe organ and you don't know exactly where to start looking for some effective, contemporary scores that will come across on this type of instrument Half
of the scores posted here can help serve this purpose too, as they're all recital worthy.
What if you're a pianist/keyboardist moving to the organ? ... while you're learning to use the pedals with the Nilson or other method book [See blog, Exercises,
Part II] some pieces like this, where the feet at certain climactic places can be given the lowest note in the harmony, can get the feet working a little right away and help bridge the transition to the organ. It may come as a surprise
to many in the audience that, with judicious use of the bottom octave in the manuals by the left hand, the pipe organ's pedals don't always have to be employed to have a pervading bass or big sound [See menu bar, Video].
For those who have the ambition,
physical wellness, and determination to prepare for the AGO Service Playing certificate or Colleague certificate [See blog, American Guild of Organists (AGO)], the materials available from AGO national headquarters should be considered required reading. The
material on this web site, including all the scores posted here combined with the Nilson book, could serve as a very solid supplement in preparing for these examinations. It would also make for some very effective senior recital material for those majoring
in organ in college. What is isn't, is boring. What it doesn't do, is drive the listener nuts listening to it. What is will never do, is fail to make sense to the listener's ear.
No matter how small or diminutive the instrument at
hand happens to be, even if it has only one manual of limited compass and no pedalboard, the first collection of pieces can be performed on it. Among these works are a spirited Processional March, a rousing Recessional, a Voluntary in the style of the
old English masters, a big set of 13 Variations on a cantus firmus (fixed melody), a brisk "jig" Fugue, 3 stand alone preludes on free themes (one prelude being in the improvisational style of Louis Vierne), and 2 early Sketches based upon free themes of Vierne
[see menu bar, Free Stuff]. The scores for the remaining 3 collections have an obligatory pedal part and include a second bold "jig" Fugue, a spacious Praeludium (multi-sectional north German toccata), Chorale, & Fugue, a Prelude paired with a bold
double Fugue, a big French Romantic Toccata & Fugue, A Chorale & Fugue, an Introduction & Fugue, a Fantasia & Fugue, 5 more Preludes & Fugues, 2 technical etudes entitled Trio and Canon, a Pastorale on 2 themes treated with a variety of
canons, a quiet Communion song, and a compelling cradle song entitled "Lied" (pronounced "leed"). There's also a big stand alone fugue entitled "Postlude" and a smaller stand alone Fugue for when the organist need not play a long time. These scores
are doing all kinds of different things in different ways [See blog, Smorgasbord] and offer something for everyone at every skill level.
Organists generally are looking for new music of sturdy build, and this is useful material expected to make a lasting
contribution to the organ repertoire. In all of these scores the stretch for the hands has been kept an octave or less. Anyone who cross compares them with their individual archive descriptions will receive step by step instruction in how they
were put together and quite possibly find inspiration for taking their own first steps in composition.